Understanding your choice of forged gears options
As a buyer, understanding your choice of forged gears options can be a daunting task. With a plethora of options available in the market, it can be overwhelming to know which option to choose that best suits your needs. We’ll provide you with comprehensive details on forged gears to help you make an informed decision when purchasing.
Selecting the appropriate forged gear for your application is essential to ensure optimal performance and longevity. By understanding the various forging processes, material options, and key specifications, you can make an informed decision that best meets your requirements. With the right combination of design, material, and heat treatment, high-quality forged gear can significantly enhance the efficiency and durability of your equipment.
What are forged gears?
Forged gears refer to mechanical components with teeth on the rim that can continuously mesh and transmit motion and power. A forged gear is a rotating circular machine component with cut teeth or, in the case of forged or large forged gears, inserted teeth (called forged gears) that mesh with another (compatible) toothed component to transmit (convert) torque and speed. Forged gear units can change the power source’s speed, torque, and direction. Forged gears of different sizes generate torque changes through their forged gear ratio, resulting in mechanical advantages, and can be considered simple machinery. The rotational speed and torque of two meshing forged gears are proportionally different from their diameters. The shape of the teeth on both meshing forged gears is the same.
What is gear transmission?
Gear transmission is a device that transmits motion and power through gear pairs and is the most widely used mechanical transmission method among various modern equipment. It has accurate transmission, high efficiency, compact structure, reliable operation, and long service life.
Gear transmission can transmit power up to tens of thousands of kilowatts, with a circumferential speed of up to 150m/s (up to 300m/s), a diameter of over 10m, and a single-stage transmission ratio of 8 or more. Therefore, it is widely used in non-standard equipment. However, generally, gears in non-standard equipment are mainly composed of smaller module gears, which do not reach large gears. When the transmission ratio is large, or the transmission center distance is long, a reducer or belt drive is generally used to replace them.
Characteristics of gear transmission
The instantaneous transmission ratio is constant.
The transmission ratio range is large and can be used for deceleration or acceleration.
The range of speed (referring to the circumferential speed of the knuckles) and transmitted power is large and can be used for high-speed (V>40m/s), medium-speed, and low-speed (V<25m/s) transmission. The transmitted power range can be applied from less than 1W to over 10KW.
High transmission efficiency. High-precision involute cylindrical gears with an efficiency of over 99%.
Compact structure. Suitable for close-range transmission but not suitable for long-distance transmission.
The manufacturing cost is relatively high. For gears with special tooth shapes or high precision, the manufacturing process is complex, and the cost is high due to the need for specialized or high-precision machine tools, cutting tools, and measuring instruments.
Gears with low accuracy can cause noise, vibration, and impact during transmission, resulting in environmental pollution.
No overload protection during transmission.
Structure of forged gears
Generally, there are gear teeth, tooth grooves, end faces, normal surfaces, tooth top circles, tooth root circles, base circles, and indexing circles.
Gear teeth: Referred to as teeth, they are each protruding part of a gear used for meshing. These protruding parts are generally arranged in a radial shape, and the teeth on the paired gear come into contact with each other, allowing the gear to mesh continuously and operate.
A tooth groove: refers to the space between two adjacent teeth on a gear; The end face is a plane on a cylindrical gear or worm that is perpendicular to the axis of the gear or worm.
End face: refers to the plane at both ends of a gear.
Normal plane: refers to a plane perpendicular to the tooth line of a gear.
The tooth tip circle: refers to the circle where the top of the tooth is located.
- Root circle: Refers to the circle where the groove base is located.
Base circle: A circle that forms an involute and undergoes pure rolling.
Indexing circle: It is the reference circle used to calculate the geometric dimensions of gears within the end face.
Types of forged gears
Generally speaking, there are many types of gear transmission, among which the arrangement of the shaft and the tooth line relative to the direction of the gear bus is a common classification; of course, it can also be classified according to the following classification:
The shaft arrangement is divided into parallel shaft gear drive, intersecting shaft gear drive, and staggered shaft gear drive.
The tooth line relative to the gear bus direction is divided into straight teeth, helical teeth, herringbone teeth, and curved teeth.
According to the gear transmission, working conditions are divided into closed, open, and semi-open transmission.
The tooth profile curve is divided into involute teeth, cycloidal teeth, and circular arc teeth.
According to the tooth, surface hardness is divided into soft tooth surface (≤350HB) and hard tooth surface (>350HB).
In the design of equipment, engineers often use the arrangement of the shaft for gear classification so that it can be classified and analyzed by applying the characteristics of gears that can transmit any direction (parallel, intersecting, staggered), corresponding to different working conditions, to choose the appropriate type of gear transmission.
Three types exist according to how the gear shaft is arranged and generally divided into parallel shafts, intersecting shafts, and staggered shafts.
Parallel axis gears: including spur gears, helical gears, herringbone teeth, internal gears, rack, pinion, etc.
Intersecting axis gears: straight bevel gears, helical bevel gears, curved bevel gears, etc.
Interleaved axis gears: interleaved axis helical gears, worm gears, hypoid gears, etc.
Parallel axis gears
Spur gear: A cylindrical gear with a tooth line parallel to the axis. Due to its ease of processing, it is most widely used in power transmission.
Helical gear: the tooth line for the helical line of the cylindrical gear. It is widely used because it is stronger than spur gears and runs smoothly. Generates axial thrust during transmission.
Herringbone gears: Gears made by combining two helical gears with left- and right-hand rotating tooth lines. It has the advantage of not generating thrust in the axial direction.
Internal gear: A gear with teeth machined on the inner side of the ring that meshes with the spur gear. It is mainly used in planetary gear transmission mechanisms and gear coupling applications.
Spur Gear: A spur gear is a linear, rack-like gear that meshes with a spur gear. It can be seen as a special case when the pitch circle diameter of the spur gear becomes infinite.
Helical rack: A helical rack is a barring gear that meshes with a helical gear. It is equivalent to the case when the pitch diameter of the helical gear becomes infinite.
Intersecting shaft gears
Straight bevel gear: A bevel gear whose tooth line is in line with the bus of the pitch bevel line. Among bevel gears, it is the type that is relatively easy to manufacture. Therefore, it is widely used as a transmission bevel gear.
Helical bevel gear: Bevel gear whose pitch bevel tooth lines are all tangent to a circle concentric with the pitch bevel axis, also known as tangential tooth bevel gear. It is relative to the advantages of straight bevel gears and helical cylindrical gears relative to the advantages of straight cylindrical gears: the impact load is smaller running more smoothly. However, due to the low productivity of this gear processing, performance and inability to use special high-performance machine tools can be mass-produced spiral bevel gear, so gradually replaced by the latter, has rarely been used.
Curved tooth bevel gear: tooth line for the curve, with the spiral angle of the bevel gear. Although compared with the straight bevel gear, producing a more difficult but high-strength, low-noise gear is also widely used.
Staggered shaft gears
Staggered shaft helical gear: the name of the cylindrical worm gear vice when driving between staggered shafts. It can be used in the case of a helical gear pair or helical gear and spur gear pair. Although the smooth operation is smooth, it is only suitable for light load cases.
Hypoid gears: Conical gears that drive between staggered shafts. The large and small gears are eccentrically machined, similar to curved gears, and the meshing principle is very complex.
Worm gear: Worm gear is divided into cylindrical and drum worm pairs. The cylindrical worm pair is the general name of the cylindrical worm, and the worm wheel meshed with it. It has the biggest feature of quiet operation and large transmission ratio by single pair, but the disadvantage of low efficiency. It is a general term for a drum worm and a worm wheel that meshes with it. Although manufacturing is more difficult, it is possible to drive large loads than cylindrical worm gears.
Other special gears
Face gear: A disc-shaped gear that can mesh with spur or helical gears. Drive between straight and staggered shafts.
Materials Used in Forged Gears
Forged gears can be made from various materials, each with unique properties suited for specific applications. Some common materials include:
|Titanium forged gears||ASTM B381 / ASME SB381, Titanium Gr. 1, Titanium Gr. 2, Titanium Gr. 4, Titanium Gr. 5, Titanium Gr. 7, ASTM R50250/GR.1| R50400/GR.2 | R50550/GR.3 | R50700/GR.4 | GR.6 |R52400/GR.7 | R53400/GR.12 | R56320/GR.9 |R56400/GR.5|
|Copper forged gears||T1, T2, C10100, C10200, C10300, C10400, C10500, C10700, C10800, C10910,C10920, TP1, TP2, C10930, C11000, C11300, C11400, C11500, C11600, C12000,C12200, C12300, TU1, TU2, C12500, C14200, C14420, C14500, C14510, C14520, C14530, C17200, C19200, C21000, C23000, C26000, C27000, C27400, C28000, C33000, C33200, C37000, C44300, C44400, C44500, C60800, C63020, C68700, C70400, C70600, C70620, C71000, C71500, C71520, C71640, etc|
|Copper Nickel forged gears||ASTM / ASME SB 61 / 62 / 151 / 152, Copper Nickel 90/10 (C70600 ), Cupro Nickel 70/30 (C71500), UNS C71640|
|Carbon Steel forged gears||ASTM/ASME A/SA105 A/SA105N & A/SA216-WCB, DIN 1.0402, DIN 1.0460, DIN 1.0619, Die Steel, ASTM A105 / ASME SA105, A105N, ASTM A350 LF2 / ASME SA350, High Yield CS ASTM A694 / A694 (F52 F56 F60 F65 F70 F80)|
|Stainless Steel forged gears||ASTM/ASME A/SA182 F304, F304L, F316, F316L, ASTM/ASME A/SA351 CF8, CF3, CF8M, CF3M, DIN 1.4301, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4401, DIN 1.4404, DIN 1.4308, DIN 1.4408, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4409|
|Alloy Steel forged gears||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182 F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91|
|Hastelloy forged gears||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Hastelloy C276 (UNS N10276), C22 (UNS N06022), C4, C2000, B2, B3, X|
|Brass forged gears||3602 / 2604 / H59 / H62 / etc.|
|Inconel forged gears||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Inconel 600, 601, 625, 718, 783, 690, x750|
|Monel forged gears||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Monel 400 (UNS No. N04400), Monel 500 (UNS No. N05500)|
|Duplex forged gears||S31803 / S32205 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Super Duplex forged gears||S32750 / S32760 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Alloy 20 forged gears||ASTM B462 / ASME SB462, Carpenter 20 Alloy, Alloy 20Cb-3|
|Aluminium forged gears||5052 /6061/ 6063 / 2017 / 7075 / etc.|
|Nickel forged gears||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Nickel 200, Nickel 201, Nickel 205, Nickel 205LC|
|Nimonic forged gears||Nimonic 75, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90|
|Other forged gearsmaterial||Tin bronze, Alumunum bronze, Lead bronze|
|Incoloy forged gears||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Incoloy 800, 800H, 800HT (UNS N08800), 825 (UNS N08825), 925|
|254 Smo forged gears||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182, SMO 254/6Mo, UNS S31254, DIN 1.4547|
Dimensions of Forged Gears
While the dimensions of a forged gear can vary based on the factors mentioned above, some standard dimensions are commonly found in the industry. These include:
Diameter: A Key Parameter for Forged Gears
The diameter of a forged gear is a crucial factor in determining its overall performance and compatibility with other components. Generally, diameter refers to the distance from one end of the gear to the other, passing through its center.
The pitch diameter is a vital dimension in gear design. It refers to the diameter of the imaginary circle that passes through the point where the teeth of two meshing gears make contact. The pitch diameter is critical for determining the gear ratio, affecting the torque and rotational speed transmission between gears.
The outside diameter, also known as the gear’s overall diameter, is the measurement from one tip of a tooth to the opposite tooth tip, passing through the gear’s center. This dimension is significant when considering the gear’s compatibility with other components, such as housings and shafts.
The root diameter, or the base circle diameter, is the distance between the bottom of the gear teeth across the gear’s center. This dimension is essential in determining the gear’s strength and the amount of clearance required between the meshing gears.
Wall Thickness: Ensuring Durability and Strength
The wall thickness of a forged gear refers to the thickness of the gear’s body or the section between the teeth and the gear’s center. Adequate wall thickness is crucial for maintaining the gear’s strength, stability, and resistance to deformation under load.
The Forging Process of forged gears
The forging process of forged gears is a complex yet essential series of steps that ensure the highest quality and performance of the final product. Each stage is vital in creating a durable, reliable, high-performing gear, from steel ingot heating to transportation. With numerous advantages and a wide range of applications, forged gears are preferred for industries worldwide.
The free-forging process of gears
Free forging is a method to obtain the required forgings by manual operation under the action of forging equipment and simple tools after heating the billet to the forging temperature.
1. Design and drawing of forgings
Forging is changing the shape of metal under pressure to obtain a blank with a shape close to the size of the part. Forging metal materials can obtain the required shape and size, improve the internal organization of the part, and improve the mechanical properties of the part.
2. Determine the deformation process and process size
The deformation process of the forging is as follows: a forging, an upsetting, a punching, a punching and reaming, and a trimming.
3. Determine the forging temperature range
Generally speaking, the higher the forging temperature, the better the plasticity of the metal, and the more favorable to forging and forming, but the temperature is too high and prone to overheating or overburning.
Determine the final forging temperature range to ensure that the metal in the final forging has sufficient plasticity and that the forgings can obtain good organizational properties.
4. Calculate the size of the billet and feed it
Determine the quality and specification of the ingot or billet; its quality is the sum of the forging mass and the loss of metal material during forging. The dimensions can be obtained from the billet mass (or volume) and the forging ratio in upsetting or drawing, then determined according to the ingot or billet specifications after selection.
(1). Calculation principles
Since the forging process, the shape and surface of the forgings can not fully meet the requirements of the forging diagram, its surface is not flat, and the shape of the cross-section can not be the required round, square, or rectangular, but only similar to the required shape. The quality of forgings often exceeds the quality calculated simply by nominal size. Therefore, the following points should be considered when calculating the quality of forgings:
1) The quality of general forgings can be calculated according to the nominal size of each part of the forging diagram and the total quality.
2) For large, medium, and homely shape forgings, each part should be calculated according to its nominal size plus 1/2 upper deviation and then determine the total quality. Large and medium forgings can be calculated by nominal size only when the operation technology level can reach forging by negative difference or using tire die forging.
3) The remaining metal mass of the forging and unleveled drums must also be included when calculating the mass of large forgings.
(2). Calculation method
The quality of forgings is calculated. The calculated mass of the remaining surface or drum-shaped remaining surface of large forgings can be calculated according to the graph line method and formula method. The loss of metal mass during forging, or nominal size for mass calculation, can be calculated.
After upsetting, the billet is in the shape of a drum, and the flat anvil upsetting before the pad ring upsetting can make the two end surfaces flat and remove the oxide skin. The diameter of the billet after the flat anvil upsetting should be slightly smaller than the inner diameter of the pad ring so that the billet can be easily put into the pad ring during operation. The diameter of the flange part should be smaller than the maximum diameter of the forging after forging by the pad ring because the diameter of the forging will be increased after the post-punching and reaming process.
Punching through holes in forging must use double-sided punching. First, lightly punch with a solid punch to ensure that the punch cannot be deflected; then sprinkle coal dust into the punched shallow hole, punch the hole until the hole depth reaches about 2/3 of the forging depth, turn the blank over, put the punch in the position of the black mark, and quickly punch the core material to get them through the hole. During the punching process, the overall deformation occurs due to the billet’s local loading; the blank’s height decreases, and the diameter increases. Punching should make the loss of punching core material small so that the diameter of punching core material should be manageable, and the number of reaming should be manageable.
The hole is reamed using a tapered punch. When reaming, due to the radial expansion of the hole along the billet, the billet is subject to transverse tensile stress, which makes it easy to expand and crack, so each reaming volume should be manageable. The total reaming volume is the forging hole diameter minus the punching diameter.
8. Trimming forgings
According to the forging diagram, the forging will be set on the mandrel and gently hammer pressure on the cylindrical side so that the forging’s drum shape is reduced to eliminate until the forging is a suitable size.
Normalization of gear blanks
Normalizing is generally arranged after casting or forging, i.e., before rough machining, to achieve good machinability, eliminate residual stress generated during steel forging and refined grains, and improve microstructure, reducing the tendency for deformation and cracking during quenching. The normalizing temperature is 900~970 ℃, and the hardness is 156-269HBW.
The outer circle, inner hole, and end face of rough turning gear blanks (with machining allowance reserved according to standards)
The rough turning process for gear blanks involves shaping the outer circle, inner hole, and end face of the gear blank while reserving a machining allowance per established standards. This stage is crucial in obtaining an accurate and precise gear blank, which can undergo further heat treatments and finishing processes.
Quenching and tempering heat treatment (quenching + high-temperature tempering)
Quenching and tempering treatment also aim to refine the uniformity of grains and microstructure. Due to the obtained tempered sorbate structure, the toughness of the gear blank is higher, and this process is generally arranged after rough machining (such as low-carbon steel). In addition, stress-relieving treatment on some gears can stabilize the structure and reduce deformation. After the gear is heated, consideration should be given to the steel’s hardenability, deformation, and cracking tendency. The optimal quenching cooling medium should be selected to ensure hardenability, effectively control deformation and avoid cracking.
When high-temperature tempering, steel’s second type of temper brittleness must be considered. High cooling is used for carbon steel without such brittleness, while for alloy steel gears, rapid cooling in water or oil is required after tempering.
The outer circle, inner hole, and end face of the precision turning gear blank (to the final size)
Precision turning of gear blanks involves finishing the outer circle, inner hole, and end face to their final dimensions. This process ensures that the gear blank meets the necessary specifications and tolerances, which is crucial for the subsequent gear cutting, grinding, and polishing operations.
Tooth Profile Machining of Gear Rings
The tooth profile machining of the gear ring is the core of the whole gear machining. There are many processes in gear machining, all of which serve the purpose of tooth profile machining, and the aim is to obtain gears that meet the accuracy requirements.
According to the processing principle, tooth shape can be divided into forming and spreading methods. In addition, wire cutting and powder metallurgy are also used in non-standard designs for gear processing, among which powder metallurgy is more widely used for pinion processing.
Forming is the method of cutting out the tooth surface with the forming tool that matches the shape of the tooth groove of the gear being cut, such as milling, pulling, and forming grinding.
The spreading method is the gear tool and the workpiece according to the meshing relationship of the gears for the spreading movement to cut out the tooth surface, such as hobbing, inserting, shaving, grinding and honing, etc.
The choice of tooth processing scheme mainly depends on the accuracy level of gears, structure shape, production type, and production conditions; for different accuracy levels of gears, the common tooth processing scheme is as follows:
Gears below grade 8 Accuracy: tempered gears with hobbing or gear shaping can meet the requirements. Hardened gears can be used: hobbing (insert) teeth, a toothed end processing, and a quenching correction hole processing program. But quenching before tooth processing accuracy should be improved by one level.
6-7 precision gears: hardened gears can be used: rough hobbing, fine hobbing tooth end machining, good shaving surface quenching, a correction benchmark, a honing.
Class 5 precision gears above are generally used: rough hobbing, fine hobbing, toothed end machining, quenching a correction benchmark rough grinding, and fine grinding teeth. They were grinding the highest precision in tooth processing, surface roughness value of the smallest processing method, and the highest precision up to 3-4 grade.
Gear precision grade: below grade 9
Tooth surface roughness Ra: 6.3-3.2um Scope of application: single piece repair production, processing low precision external cylindrical gear, rack, bevel gear, worm wheel.
Gear precision grade: 7 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra: 1.6-0.4um Scope of application: mass production of internal gears of grade 7; external gear broaches are complicated to manufacture, so they are rarely used.
Gear precision grade: 8-7 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra：3.2-1.6umApplicable range： Mass production of various processing medium quality external cylindrical gears and worm wheel.
Gear precision grade: 8-7 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra: 1.6um Scope of application: various mass production, processing of medium quality internal and external cylindrical gears, multi-link gears, and small rack.
Hobbing (or insert) gears a quenching, a honing.
Gear precision grade: 8-7 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra: 0.8-0.4umApplicable range: for gears with tooth surface quenching.
Gear hobbing and gear shaving
Gear precision grade: 7-6 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra: 0.8-0.4um Scope of application: mainly used for mass production
Hobbing, shaving, quenching a honing
Gear precision grade: 7-6 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra：0.4-0.2um Scope of application： Mainly used for mass production.
Hobbing (inserting) a quenching a grinding gear
Gear precision grade: 6-3 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra: 0.4-0.2um
Scope of application: used for high precision gear tooth surface processing, low productivity, and high cost.
Hobbing (inserting) gears and grinding gears
Gear precision grade: 6-3 grade
Tooth surface roughness Ra：0.4-0.2um Scope of application： used for high precision gear tooth surface processing, low productivity, and high cost.
Heat treatment of gears
The gear tooth body should have a high resistance to fracture; the tooth surface should have a strong resistance to pitting, anti-wear, and gluing ability; that is, the requirements: tooth surface hard, tough heart. Therefore, for different working conditions of the gear will be different heat treatments, in general, such as 3C, lithium automation equipment due to the small load, often using S45C or SUS304 direct processing after surface treatment can be, without redundant heat treatment. Still, non-standard equipment design for larger loads requires gear transmission; the following heat treatment process is often used for gears.
Overall quenching: overall quenching and then low-temperature tempering. Commonly used materials for medium carbon or alloy steel, such as 45, 40Cr, etc. Surface hardness up to 45HRC-55HRC. This heat treatment process is relatively simple, but the gear deformation is large, and the heart toughness is low. Quality is difficult to ensure and must be more suitable for impact load. After heat treatment must be ground teeth, grinding teeth, and other finishing processes.
Surface quenching: surface quenching and then low-temperature tempering. Commonly used materials for medium carbon or alloy steel, surface hardness up to 48HRC-54HRC. Due to the high toughness of the heart, it can be used to withstand medium-impact loads. Small and medium-sized gears can be used in medium-frequency or high-frequency induction heating, and large-size gears can be used in flame heating. Flame heating is relatively simple, but the tooth surface is difficult to obtain uniform hardness, and the quality is not easily guaranteed. It should only be heated in the thin layer of the surface; gear deformation is not large and may not be the last grinding teeth. Still, if the hardening layer is deeper, the deformation is larger and should be the final finishing process.
Normalizing and tempering: small batch, single production, no strict restrictions on transmission size, often using normalizing or tempering treatment. The material is medium carbon steel or medium carbon alloy steel. Surface hardness up to 40HRC-55HRC. Gear finishing after heat treatment is carried out to reduce the risk of gluing and make the size of the gear life similar; the pinion gear tooth surface hardness should be dozens of HB units higher than the large gear.
Carburizing quenching: For gears with high-impact loads, it is appropriate to use carburizing quenching. Commonly used materials are low-carbon or low-carbon alloy steel, such as 15, 20, 15Cr, 20Cr, 20CrMnTi, etc. Low-carbon steel carburizing quenching, because of the lower strength of the heart, and the carburizing layer is not easy to combine well, the possibility of peeling when the load is high, the gear bending strength is also low, important occasions should be used low-carbon alloy steel, the tooth surface hardness of up to 58HRC-63HRC. Gear by carburizing quenching, gear deformation is large, should be ground teeth.
Carburizing: the carburizing process is short and has the advantage of nitriding, which can replace carburizing quenching, the material and carburizing quenching the same.
Nitriding: Nitriding gears with high hardness and small deformation are suitable for internal gears and gears that are difficult to grind. The materials often used are 42CrMo, 38CrMoA1, etc. Because the hardened layer is very thin and easy to break under impact load, serious wear will also be scrapped. The hardened layer is worn off, suitable for smooth load and well-lubricated transmission.
Tooth surface grinding
Based on rough machining (such as hobbing, milling, etc.) and heat treatment, the grinding further removes the finishing margin to improve the gear’s accuracy and surface quality. Due to the special shape of gear parts, the initial entry position of the grinding wheel must be aligned with the tooth groove of the tooth blank, i.e., the tooth groove of the gear to be ground must be positioned circumferentially (i.e., tooth alignment).
Surface treatment of gears
Gears in the selection of materials, processing, and heat treatment will generally be the corresponding surface treatment, for different surface treatments will usually be selected according to different working conditions in order to achieve rust, wear resistance, corrosion resistance, and unity of color of the structural parts of the equipment, while also taking into account the cost of economy, in the design of non-standard equipment, gear surface treatment usually choose the following types:
Zinc plating: to improve the rust resistance, the thickness of the plating layer is generally about 2-25μm.
Electroless nickel plating: to improve corrosion resistance and wear resistance, the thickness of the plating layer is uniform, generally about 3-10μm.
Blackening treatment: improves the ability to prevent rust, and film thickness is generally below 3μm.
Phosphate treatment: improves rust, wear resistance, and film thickness – generally 3-15μm or so.
Low-temperature black chromium plating: improves the ability to prevent rust and the thickness of the coating – generally about 5μm.
Quality inspection of forged gears
During the production process of forged gear products, there may be appearance defects such as broken teeth, short teeth, chipped teeth, missing teeth, crooked teeth, batch fronts, etc. They can affect the accuracy of gears and bite problems. In the quality inspection process, these defective products must be eliminated.
The inspection of forged gears is a very specialized category. The general inspection is divided into two types: single inspection (analytical measurement) and comprehensive inspection (functional testing). Single inspection items generally include tooth shape, tooth direction, runout, common normal, base knot, circumference, etc. A comprehensive inspection is to use a very high precision standard gear (master gear) and the parts to be tested mesh; the general test items are: single tooth, a week, the center distance, and the amount of change, and then you can color the tooth surface to see the location and shape of the contact spot to determine its meshing condition. So no matter single item or comprehensive is to be tested by special instruments and gauges.
Marking, Packaging, and Transportation: Delivering Quality Forged Gears
Once the forged gears have undergone precision machining, they are marked with identifying information, such as part number, heat number, and material grade. They are then carefully packaged to prevent damage during transportation. Finally, the gears are shipped to their final destination, ready to be integrated into various applications across numerous industries.
How to Measure Forged Gears?
Accurate measurement of these gears is vital for ensuring the end product’s proper fit, function, and longevity.
Selecting the Right Tools for Measurement
To achieve precise measurements, it’s vital to use the right tools. Some of the most common and essential tools for measuring forged gears are:
1. Gear Tooth Vernier Calipers: These specialized calipers are designed to measure the width and thickness of gear teeth. They provide a high degree of accuracy, ensuring your measurements are reliable.
2. Micrometers: These precision instruments are used to measure small distances, such as the diameter of gear teeth or the thickness of gear rims.
3. Gear Tooth Gages: These specialized gages help determine the tooth thickness at a specified pitch diameter. They come in various forms, including involute and straight-sided tooth gages.
4. Coordinate Measuring Machines (CMMs): CMMs are advanced devices that offer high-precision measurements of complex geometries, such as gears. They can provide detailed information about gear dimensions and surface profiles.
5. Optical Measuring Devices: These instruments use optics, such as lasers or digital cameras, to measure gear dimensions. They offer high accuracy and are ideal for measuring intricate gear designs.
Measuring Forged Gear Parameters
To accurately measure forged gears, we must consider several key parameters. The most important parameters include the following:
1. Tooth Thickness: The width of the gear tooth at its base. Measure this dimension using a gear tooth vernier caliper or gauge.
2. Tooth Profile: The shape of the gear tooth’s surface. Assess this parameter using an optical measuring device or a CMM.
3. Pitch Diameter: The diameter of the imaginary circle upon which the gear teeth are spaced evenly. Calculate this value using the gear’s tooth count and module.
4. Base Circle Diameter: The involute tooth profile generates the circle’s diameter. To determine this value, use the gear’s module and pressure angle.
5. Outside Diameter: The diameter of the gear’s outermost edge. Measure this dimension with a micrometer or a vernier caliper.
6. Root Diameter: The circle’s diameter that defines the gear tooth’s bottom. Calculate this value by subtracting twice the tooth depth from the outside diameter.
Understanding the Importance of Precision
The accuracy of your measurements directly impacts the performance and durability of your forged gears. Precise measurements are essential to:
1. Minimize Gear Wear: Accurate gear measurements ensure proper gear meshing, reducing wear and tear on gear teeth.
2. Optimize Power Transmission: Properly measured gears can efficiently transmit power, maximizing performance and reducing energy loss.
3. Reduce Noise and Vibration: Correctly measured gears lead to smooth operation, minimizing noise and vibration, which can cause damage over time.
Common Challenges and How to Overcome Them
Measuring forged gears can be challenging. Here are some common issues and solutions to ensure accurate measurements:
1. Surface Irregularities: Imperfections on the gear tooth surface can affect measurements. To overcome this issue, thoroughly clean the gear before measuring and use high-quality measuring instruments that account for surface variations.
2. Operator Error: Inaccurate measurements can result from improper handling of the measuring tools or misreading the results. To minimize operator error, ensure that operators are well-trained in using the measuring instruments and follow the manufacturer’s guidelines.
3. Temperature Variations: Temperature changes can cause gears and measuring tools to expand or contract, affecting measurement accuracy. To mitigate this issue, measure gears and tools at a consistent temperature, ideally in a temperature-controlled environment.
4. Wear on Measuring Instruments: Over time, the edges of gear tooth vernier calipers and gear tooth gages can wear, leading to inaccurate measurements. Regularly inspect your measuring tools for wear and replace them as necessary.
How to purchase the correct forged gears?
To purchase the correct forged gears, there are several factors to take into account:
Material of Forged Gears
Selecting the right material is crucial for your project. Common materials for forged gears include carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel, aluminum, copper, and titanium. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages, so choosing the one that best suits your application is essential.
Size and Shape of Forged Gears
The size and shape of the forged gear should match the requirements of your project. Consider the dimensions, such as length, diameter, or thickness, and the overall shape (round or flat). Custom sizes and shapes can also be requested from the supplier.
Tolerance and Straightness of Forged Gears
Tolerance refers to the allowable variation in dimensions, while straightness is the degree to which the gear is free of bends or twists. Higher tolerance and straightness standards ensure better quality and performance of the forged gears. Make sure to specify your desired tolerance and straightness requirements when purchasing.
Surface Finish of Forged Gears
The surface finish of a forged gear can affect its performance, corrosion resistance, and appearance. Common surface finishes include hot-rolled, cold-drawn, turned, and polished. The choice of surface finish depends on your application and aesthetic preferences.
Heat Treatment of Forged Gears
Heat treatment can significantly alter the mechanical properties of the forged gears, such as hardness, strength, and ductility. Depending on your application, you may require specific heat treatment processes like annealing, normalizing, quenching, or tempering. Ensure your supplier can provide your forged gears with the necessary heat treatment services.
Quality Certifications of Forged Gears
Quality certifications, such as ISO, ASTM, or ASME, ensure that the forged gears meet specific industry standards and requirements. Look for suppliers with these certifications to guarantee you’re purchasing high-quality products.
Budget and Pricing of Forged Gears
The cost of forged gears can vary depending on the material, size, and additional processing. Compare prices from different suppliers and consider your budget while making your decision. Keep in mind that quality should not be compromised for the sake of lower prices.
Purchasing the correct forged gears is crucial for the success of your project. By understanding the forging process, considering factors like material, size, shape, and quality certifications, and choosing the right supplier, you can ensure that you’re investing in high-quality products that meet your needs. With the right forged gears, you can enhance the performance, durability, and longevity of your applications, contributing to the overall success of your project.
How to select forged gears manufacturer?
Selecting the manufacturer of the right forged gear requires careful consideration of various factors, including quality, experience, capacity, customization, certification, pricing, location, reputation, and additional services offered. By considering all these aspects, you can make an informed decision and choose a reliable and experienced manufacturer that will deliver high-quality forged gears for your project.
Factors to Consider when Selecting a Forged Gears Manufacturer
The quality of the forged gears is of paramount importance. Always choose a manufacturer that adheres to strict quality control standards and utilizes advanced technology to produce high-quality forged gears.
The manufacturer’s experience in the industry is an essential factor to consider. An experienced manufacturer will have the knowledge and expertise to produce high-quality forged gears and meet your requirements.
The production capacity of the manufacturer should be taken into account. Ensure the manufacturer can handle your order volume, whether a small or large-scale project.
Your project may require customized forged gears with unique specifications. Choose a manufacturer offering customization options, ensuring they meet your specific needs.
Check if the manufacturer holds relevant certifications, such as ISO or AS9100. These certifications are an indication of their commitment to quality and industry standards.
While pricing should not be the sole determining factor, it is essential to consider the cost of the forged gears. Select a manufacturer that offers competitive pricing without compromising quality.
The location of the manufacturer can affect shipping times and logistics costs. Opt for a conveniently located manufacturer that can deliver the forged gears within your desired timeframe.
Evaluating a Manufacturer’s Reputation
A. Customer Reviews
Read through customer reviews and testimonials to understand the manufacturer’s reputation. Positive feedback from satisfied customers is a good indication of the manufacturer’s reliability and commitment to quality.
B. Industry Recognition
Look for manufacturers that have received industry awards or recognition, which indicates their dedication to excellence and innovation in forged gears manufacturing.
Additional Services Offered
A. In-House Testing
Choose a manufacturer that offers in-house testing and inspection services. This ensures that the forged gears meet your specifications and quality requirements before shipping them.
B. On-Time Delivery
On-time delivery is crucial for any project. Select a manufacturer with a track record of delivering orders on time to avoid potential delays or disruptions to your project schedule.
C. After-Sales Support
After-sales support is an essential aspect of any business relationship. Choose a manufacturer that offers excellent customer service and support, including addressing any concerns or issues you may have with the forged gears after delivery.
Why Choose Guanxin to Be Your forged gear Supplier?
At Guanxin, we pride ourselves on providing top-notch forged gears that meet industry standards. Our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and experienced team of engineers ensure that every forged gear we produce is exceptional, with precise dimensions and impeccable surface finish. By choosing Guanxin as your forged gear supplier, you can be confident that you are receiving products that will exceed your expectations and stand the test of time.
Wide Range of Materials and Sizes
Our extensive selection of materials and sizes sets us apart from other forged gear suppliers. We offer a diverse range of metals, including stainless steel, alloy steel, carbon steel, and superalloys, to meet the unique requirements of various industries. Our forged gears are available in various diameters and lengths, ensuring we can fulfill any order, no matter how specialized or demanding.
Tailored Solutions for Your Specific Needs
At Guanxin, we understand that each customer has unique requirements and challenges. That’s why we offer customized solutions tailored to your specific needs. Our skilled engineers will work closely with you to develop and produce forged gears that meet your specifications. Whether you require a particular material, size, or surface finish, we have the expertise and resources to deliver the perfect solution for your project.
Competitive Pricing and Exceptional Value
We know that cost is crucial when selecting a forged gear supplier. At Guanxin, we are committed to providing our customers with competitive pricing without compromising quality. Our streamlined manufacturing processes and extensive industry experience allow us to offer exceptional value, ensuring that you receive the best possible product at a fair price.
Fast Lead Times and Reliable Delivery
In today’s fast-paced business world, time is of the essence. We understand the importance of delivering your forged gears promptly and reliably. Our efficient production processes and well-established logistics network ensure that your order will be completed and delivered on time every time. By choosing Guanxin as your forged gear supplier, you can rest assured that your project will stay on track and schedule.
Unparalleled Customer Support
Customer satisfaction is at the core of our business. Our dedicated customer support team is always available to answer any questions or address any concerns. From the moment you place your order to the final delivery of your forged gears, we will be with you every step to ensure a seamless and hassle-free experience.
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
At Guanxin, we recognize the importance of protecting the environment and are committed to sustainable manufacturing practices. Our eco-friendly production processes and adherence to strict environmental regulations ensure that our forged gears are produced with minimal environmental impact. By choosing Guanxin as your forged gear supplier, you can be confident that you are partnering with a company that values and prioritizes environmental responsibility.
Global Presence and Reputation
As a leading global forged gear supplier, Guanxin has established a strong presence and reputation in the international market. Our extensive network of satisfied customers and partners is a testament to our commitment to quality, innovation, and customer service. By partnering with Guanxin, you can be assured that you are working with a company with the expertise and resources to support your business globally.
State-of-the-Art Research and Development
Innovation is at the heart of our success at Guanxin. Our research and development team is constantly exploring new materials, technologies, and manufacturing techniques to improve the performance and durability of our forged gears. By staying at the forefront of industry advancements, we can offer our customers cutting-edge products that set the standard for quality and performance. When you choose Guanxin as your forged gear supplier, you can be sure that you are receiving products incorporating the latest industry innovations.
Strict Quality Control and Assurance
To guarantee the highest quality forged gears, we have implemented a rigorous quality control and assurance system at every stage of the production process. From selecting raw materials to the final inspection and testing finished products, our experienced quality control team ensures that every forged gear meets our strict quality standards. By maintaining our unwavering commitment to quality, we can provide our customers with forged gears they can trust to perform reliably in even the most demanding applications.
Certifications and Compliance
As a leading forged gear supplier, Guanxin is fully committed to complying with all applicable industry standards and regulations. We hold various certifications, including ISO, demonstrating our dedication to maintaining the highest levels of quality and safety in our products and processes. By choosing Guanxin as your forged gear supplier, you can be certain that you are partnering with a company that values compliance and adheres to the strictest industry standards.
Long-Term Partnerships and Collaboration
At Guanxin, we believe in building long-lasting relationships with our customers and partners. By fostering a collaborative environment and maintaining open lines of communication, we can better understand your needs and work together to achieve your goals. Our commitment to long-term partnerships ensures we can provide ongoing support and resources to help your business grow and succeed.
Experience and Expertise
With years of experience in the forged gear industry, our team of skilled professionals has the knowledge and expertise to provide you with the best possible solutions for your projects. Our in-depth understanding of various industries unique requirements and challenges enables us to offer expert guidance and advice to help you make the best decisions for your business.
Guanxin is the ideal choice for your forged gear supplier due to our commitment to quality, innovation, customer satisfaction, and environmental responsibility. Our extensive range of products, tailored solutions, competitive pricing, fast lead times, and exceptional customer support make us the preferred partner for businesses worldwide. By choosing Guanxin as your forged gear supplier, you can be confident that you are working with a company dedicated to your success.
Our forging product types
|Item||Type||Section size/mm||Length/Height mm||Weight/ton|
|1||Circle/step axis class||Ø100-Ø1500||≤15000||≤15|
|4||Pie type class||Ø200-Ø2400||≤700||≤12|
|5||Valve box/valve body type||Ø250-1200||≤2000||≤12|
|Shaft flange type|
|7||Cross axis class||≤Ø2000||≤500||≤10|
Export Country For Forged Gears
|MIDDLE EAST||AFRICA||NORTH AMERICA||EUROPE||ASIA||SOUTH AMERICA|
|Oman||Sudan||Trinidad And Tobago||Spain||South Korea||Ecuador|
|Turkey||The Republic Of Congo||Bahamas||Netherland||Sri Lanka||Paraguay|