Understanding your choice of forged cylinders options
As a buyer, understanding your choice of forged cylinders options can be a daunting task. With a plethora of options available in the market, it can be overwhelming to know which option to choose that best suits your needs. In this article, we’ll provide you with comprehensive details on forged cylinders to help you make an informed decision when purchasing.
Understanding your choice of forged cylinders options is crucial in selecting the best option that suits your needs. Consider factors such as material type, size and shape, manufacturing process, and cost when making your choice. Choose forged cylinders for their exceptional strength, reduced risk of failure, cost-effectiveness, and customization options.
What are forged cylinders?
A forged cylinder, also known as the honing tube, is the main body of hydraulic cylinders and is widely used in various industries such as engineering, metallurgical, mining, road, construction, and textile machinery. The inner hole of the cylinder barrel is generally manufactured using precision machining processes such as boring, reaming, rolling, or honing to ensure smooth sliding of the piston and its sealing and supporting components, thereby ensuring the sealing effect and reducing wear. The cylinder barrel needs to withstand significant hydraulic pressure and have sufficient strength and stiffness.
Advantages of Forged Cylinders: Why Choose Them Over Castings
Forged cylinders offer numerous advantages over castings, making them a preferred choice for many industries. Some of these benefits include:
- Higher Strength: Forging creates a refined grain structure, resulting in a stronger and more durable product than castings.
- Improved Ductility and Toughness: The forging process enhances the mechanical properties of the cylinders, making them more resistant to wear and tear.
- Better Surface Finish: Forged cylinders have a superior surface finish to castings, contributing to their overall performance and lifespan.
- Reduced Defects: The forging process and subsequent non-destructive testing minimize the occurrence of defects, ensuring a more reliable and consistent product.
Types of forged cylinders
Forged cylinder barrels come in various shapes and sizes, each with unique characteristics and applications. Oval cylinder barrels offer strength and versatility, rectangular cylinder barrels maximize space efficiency, square cylinder barrels provide high load capacity, and cylindrical cylinder barrels offer a timeless and versatile solution. Understanding the specific requirements of your application and selecting the appropriate type of forged cylinder barrel is essential for ensuring optimal performance and longevity.
Oval Cylinder Barrel: Strength and Versatility
The Unique Shape of Oval Cylinder Barrels
Oval cylinder barrels are characterized by their elliptical cross-section, which offers a unique combination of strength and versatility. These cylinders’ distinct shape allows for better stress distribution and reduces the risk of cracking and failure under high pressure.
Applications of Oval Cylinder Barrels
Oval cylinder barrels, such as hydraulic systems and high-pressure pumps, are commonly used in applications requiring exceptional strength and durability. Their unique shape makes them suitable for applications with limited space or where aesthetics are important, such as automotive and marine engineering.
Rectangular Cylinder Barrel: Maximizing Space Efficiency
The Space-Saving Advantages of Rectangular Cylinder Barrels
Rectangular cylinder barrels are characterized by their rectangular cross-section, which allows for efficient use of space in various applications. These cylinders are designed to maximize the available space within a system, making them ideal for compact and tightly-configured assemblies.
Applications of Rectangular Cylinder Barrels
Rectangular cylinder barrels, such as robotics, precision machinery, and linear motion systems, are commonly used in applications where space efficiency is crucial. Additionally, their flat surfaces make them well-suited for mounting additional components, such as sensors and brackets.
Square Cylinder Barrel: Offering High Load Capacity
The High Load Capacity of Square Cylinder Barrels
Square cylinder barrels are characterized by their cross-section, providing excellent load-bearing capacity. The symmetrical shape of these cylinders allows for an even distribution of forces, making them well-suited for heavy-duty applications.
Applications of Square Cylinder Barrels
Square cylinder barrels are commonly used in applications requiring high load capacities and durabilities, such as heavy machinery, construction equipment, and transportation systems. Their uniform shape makes them suitable for applications where precise alignment is necessary, such as in optical and semiconductor equipment.
Cylindrical Cylinder Barrel: The Classic Solution
The Timeless Appeal of Cylindrical Cylinder Barrels
Cylindrical cylinder barrels are the most common type of forged cylinder, featuring a circular cross-section. This classic design balances strength, durability, and space efficiency, making it a popular choice for various applications.
Applications of Cylindrical Cylinder Barrels
Cylindrical cylinder barrels are used in various applications across numerous industries, including automotive, aerospace, and construction. Their round shape makes them ideal for use in rotary and linear motion systems and in applications requiring a smooth, frictionless surface.
Materials Used in Forged Cylinders
Forged cylinders can be made from various materials, each with unique properties suited for specific applications. Some common materials include:
|Titanium forged cylinders||ASTM B381 / ASME SB381, Titanium Gr. 1, Titanium Gr. 2, Titanium Gr. 4, Titanium Gr. 5, Titanium Gr. 7, ASTM R50250/GR.1| R50400/GR.2 | R50550/GR.3 | R50700/GR.4 | GR.6 |R52400/GR.7 | R53400/GR.12 | R56320/GR.9 |R56400/GR.5|
|Copper forged cylinders||T1, T2, C10100, C10200, C10300, C10400, C10500, C10700, C10800, C10910,C10920, TP1, TP2, C10930, C11000, C11300, C11400, C11500, C11600, C12000,C12200, C12300, TU1, TU2, C12500, C14200, C14420, C14500, C14510, C14520, C14530, C17200, C19200, C21000, C23000, C26000, C27000, C27400, C28000, C33000, C33200, C37000, C44300, C44400, C44500, C60800, C63020, C68700, C70400, C70600, C70620, C71000, C71500, C71520, C71640, etc|
|Copper Nickel forged cylinders||ASTM / ASME SB 61 / 62 / 151 / 152, Copper Nickel 90/10 (C70600 ), Cupro Nickel 70/30 (C71500), UNS C71640|
|Carbon Steel forged cylinders||ASTM/ASME A/SA105 A/SA105N & A/SA216-WCB, DIN 1.0402, DIN 1.0460, DIN 1.0619, Die Steel, ASTM A105 / ASME SA105, A105N, ASTM A350 LF2 / ASME SA350, High Yield CS ASTM A694 / A694 (F52 F56 F60 F65 F70 F80)|
|Stainless Steel forged cylinders||ASTM/ASME A/SA182 F304, F304L, F316, F316L, ASTM/ASME A/SA351 CF8, CF3, CF8M, CF3M, DIN 1.4301, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4401, DIN 1.4404, DIN 1.4308, DIN 1.4408, DIN 1.4306, DIN 1.4409|
|Alloy Steel forged cylinders||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182 F5, F9, F11, F12, F22, F91|
|Hastelloy forged cylinders||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Hastelloy C276 (UNS N10276), C22 (UNS N06022), C4, C2000, B2, B3, X|
|Brass forged cylinders||3602 / 2604 / H59 / H62 / etc.|
|Inconel forged cylinders||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Inconel 600, 601, 625, 718, 783, 690, x750|
|Monel forged cylinders||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Monel 400 (UNS No. N04400), Monel 500 (UNS No. N05500)|
|Duplex forged cylinders||S31803 / S32205 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Super Duplex forged cylinders||S32750 / S32760 A182 Gr F51 / F52 / F53 / F54 / F55 / F57 / F59 / F60 / F61|
|Alloy 20 forged cylinders||ASTM B462 / ASME SB462, Carpenter 20 Alloy, Alloy 20Cb-3|
|Aluminium forged cylinders||5052 /6061/ 6063 / 2017 / 7075 / etc.|
|Nickel forged cylinders||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Nickel 200, Nickel 201, Nickel 205, Nickel 205LC|
|Nimonic forged cylinders||Nimonic 75, Nimonic 80A, Nimonic 90|
|Other forged cylindersmaterial||Tin bronze, Alumunum bronze, Lead bronze|
|Incoloy forged cylinders||ASTM B564 / ASME SB564, Incoloy 800, 800H, 800HT (UNS N08800), 825 (UNS N08825), 925|
|254 Smo forged cylinders||ASTM A182 / ASME SA182, SMO 254/6Mo, UNS S31254, DIN 1.4547|
Dimensions of Forged Cylinders
While the dimensions of a forged cylinder can vary based on the factors mentioned above, some standard dimensions are commonly found in the industry. These include:
Diameter: Forged cylinders are available in a wide range of diameters, typically ranging from 2 inches (50mm) to over 60 inches (1500mm). The application requirements and material properties often dictate the diameter.
Wall thickness: The wall thickness of a forged cylinder can vary depending on the material and application. Typical wall thicknesses range from 0.5 inches (12.7mm) to 6 inches (150mm) or more.
Length: The length of a forged cylinder can also vary greatly, depending on the specific application and material used. Standard lengths can range from a few inches to several feet, with some custom cylinders extending up to 20 feet (6 meters) or more.
The Forging Process of forged cylinders
The forging process of forged cylinders is a complex yet essential series of steps that ensure the highest quality and performance of the final product. Each stage is vital in creating a durable, reliable, high-performing cylinder, from steel ingot heating to transportation. With numerous advantages and a wide range of applications, forged cylinders are preferred for industries worldwide.
Steel Ingot Heating: The Foundation of Forged Cylinders
The forging process begins with the heating of steel ingots. These ingots are heated to a temperature range of 1100 to 1250 degrees Celsius, ensuring their optimal plasticity for the forging process. Maintaining a uniform temperature throughout the ingot is crucial to prevent thermal stress and cracking.
Forging Forming: The Art of Shaping Cylinders
Once the steel ingots reach the desired temperature, they are transferred to the forging press. Here, the ingots are shaped into cylinders using a combination of pressure and force. This process involves multiple steps, including performing, fullering, edging, and final forging. These steps work together to create a refined and robust forged cylinder that meets the required specifications.
For example: The material is Q460D. The outer circle of the cylinder barrel is Φ1375mm, the inner hole is Φ1175mm, the length is 4900mm, and the wall thickness is 100mm. It is a typical thin-walled cylindrical forging.
Requirement of chemical compositions of Q460D (mass fraction,%)
First heat: hot transport of steel ingots and gas cutting of the bottom riser to prevent excess material from pressing into the forging body in the bottom and riser area, ensuring the forging quality.
Second heat: upsetting H=1230mm-2500mm, punching Φ 650mm。 When upsetting, placing a spherical top upsetting cap can effectively improve the stress state inside the deformed body (becoming three-dimensional compressive stress), resulting in a small bulge shape of the forging and uniform overall deformation. The internal cavity defects of forged blanks, the improvement of the microstructure and properties of the metal inside the blank, and the prevention of new internal defects (cracks or inclusions) can have a good effect. It can compact the looseness inside the metal, forge the pores, improve the metal’s strength, hardness, and toughness, and extend the metal’s service life of the metal; When punching, pay attention to placing the punch in the center of the forging to prevent deviation.
Third fire: expand the hole to Φ 1130mm, and trim both ends to a flat surface.
Fourth Fire: Use Φ 1100mm core rod elongation.
Post-Forging Heat Treatment: Enhancing Strength and Durability
After the forging process, the newly formed cylinders undergo post-forging heat treatment. This treatment includes normalizing, quenching, and tempering to improve the mechanical properties of the cylinders, such as their hardness, toughness, and ductility. The heat treatment also relieves residual stress and refines the grain structure, ensuring a stronger and more durable product.
Heat treatment curve of the cylinder forging
The high requirements for comprehensive indicators, such as the strength of the forging product, it has brought great difficulty to heat treatment. Low carbon low alloy steel has few strengthening elements and can only rely on refining grains to improve strength. Therefore, to obtain relatively fine grains, after forging is completed, a blower is used to evenly blow air from the end face and sides, increase the cooling speed, and prevent crystal coarsening. After rough machining of the blank, it is subjected to normalizing and tempering treatment. During heat treatment, they should be placed vertically to ensure the bending and concentricity of the forgings.
The heat treatment process curve is shown in Figure. Heat it to 600-680 ℃ for 2-9 hours to reduce the temperature difference between the core and the surface so that the temperature difference does not differ too much. Using high-temperature normalizing treatment, heating to 750-980 ℃, and holding for 2 to 9 hours, the austenite grains can be refined, the microstructure can be homogenized, and the hardness can be increased to meet the requirements, followed by slow cooling. High-temperature tempering treatment, with insulation at 450-650 ℃ for 8h-20h, aims to eliminate residual stress generated during the quenching of forgings and prevent deformation and cracking.
Rough Machining: Preparing for Precision
Following heat treatment, the forged cylinders are subjected to rough machining. This process removes excess material from the surface of the cylinders, ensuring they meet the required dimensions and tolerances. Rough machining also prepares the cylinders for further processing, including non-destructive testing and performing heat treatment.
Non-Destructive Testing: Ensuring Quality and Reliability
To guarantee the quality and reliability of the forged cylinders, they undergo non-destructive testing (NDT). NDT methods, such as ultrasonic testing, magnetic particle inspection, and radiographic testing, are used to identify and assess any defects or flaws in the cylinders. These tests ensure that only cylinders meeting the highest quality standards proceed to the next stage of the process.
Performance Heat Treatment: Refining Mechanical Properties
The next step in the forging process is performance heat treatment, which involves normalizing and tempering the cylinders. This treatment refines the mechanical properties of the forged cylinders, optimizing their strength, ductility, and toughness. Performance heat treatment also ensures that the cylinders meet industry standards and specifications.
Semi Precision Machining: A Step Closer to Perfection
After performance heat treatment, the forged cylinders undergo semi-precision machining. This process refines the dimensions and surface finish of the cylinders, ensuring they meet the required tolerances and specifications. Semi-precision machining also prepares the cylinders for the final step in the process: precision machining.
Precision Machining: The Final Touch
Precision machining is the last step in the forging process. It involves using advanced machinery and tools to achieve the final dimensions and surface finish required for the forged cylinders. This process ensures that the cylinders meet the specifications and tolerances necessary for their intended applications.
Marking, Packaging, and Transportation: Delivering Quality Forged Cylinders
Once the forged cylinders have undergone precision machining, they are marked with identifying information, such as part number, heat number, and material grade. They are then carefully packaged to prevent damage during transportation. Finally, the cylinders are shipped to their final destination, ready to be integrated into various applications across numerous industries.
Quality Control and Compliance: Meeting Industry Standards
Strict quality control measures are implemented throughout the forging process to ensure that the forged cylinders meet or exceed industry standards and customer requirements. This includes adherence to ISO 9001 and other relevant certifications. Compliance with these standards guarantees the highest level of quality and performance for the forged cylinders.
1. Material Analysis
Analyzing the chemical composition of a forged cylinder helps ensure that it meets the required specifications for its intended application. This can be done using spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence, or combustion analysis methods.
Testing the mechanical properties of a forged cylinder, such as its tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness, ensures that it meets the required performance criteria. Mechanical testing can be performed using methods such as tensile testing, impact testing, and hardness testing.
2. Surface Inspection
Inspect the surface of the forged cylinder for any defects, such as cracks, pits, or inclusions, which could compromise its quality and performance. This can be done with the naked eye, magnifying glass, or microscope.
Ultrasonic testing is a non-destructive method that uses high-frequency sound waves to detect defects within the material. This technique can identify subsurface flaws that may not be visible during a visual inspection.
3. Straightness Inspection
To assess the straightness of a forged cylinder, place it on a flat surface and use a straight edge or a ruler to check for any deviations. This method is suitable for quick checks but may not be the most accurate.
Laser scanning offers a more precise and efficient method for assessing the straightness of forged cylinders. A laser scanner measures the deviation of the cylinder’s surface from a reference plane, providing accurate and detailed information about its straightness.
How to Measure Forged Cylinders?
Accurate measurement of these cylinders is vital for ensuring the end product’s proper fit, function, and longevity.
Essential Tools for Measuring Forged Cylinders
To ensure accurate measurements, using the right tools for the job is crucial. Here are some of the most important tools you will need when measuring forged cylinders:
Vernier caliper: A versatile measuring tool that accurately measures the external diameter, internal diameter, and depth of a forged cylinder.
Micrometer: A more precise measuring tool specifically designed for measuring the diameter of forged cylinders, providing a higher degree of accuracy than a vernier caliper.
Height gauge: A useful tool for measuring the height or length of a forged cylinder.
Surface plate: A flat, stable surface that serves as a reference plane for measuring the flatness and parallelism of forged cylinders.
Step-by-Step Guide to Measuring Forged Cylinders
Now that we have covered the basics let’s dive into the step-by-step process of measuring forged cylinders.
Step 1: Prepare the Forged Cylinder and Tools
Clean the forged cylinder and measuring tools to remove any dirt, grease, or debris that may affect the accuracy of your measurements.
Place the forged cylinder on a stable surface or mounting fixture to remain stationary during the measuring process.
Step 2: Measure the External Diameter
Using a vernier caliper or micrometer, carefully measure the external diameter of the forged cylinder at multiple points along its length.
Record each measurement and calculate the average for the most accurate external diameter.
Step 3: Measure the Internal Diameter
If the forged cylinder has a hollow center, use a vernier caliper or inside micrometer to measure the internal diameter at various points along its length.
Record each measurement and calculate the average for the most accurate internal diameter.
Step 4: Measure the Height or Length
Position the forged cylinder vertically on a surface plate or stable surface.
Using a height gauge, measure the height or length of the forged cylinder from the base to the top.
Record the measurement for reference.
Step 5: Evaluate Flatness and Parallelism
Place the forged cylinder on a surface plate and use a dial indicator to measure the flatness of its top and bottom surfaces.
To measure parallelism, compare the measurements of the top and bottom surfaces. The surfaces are considered parallel if the difference between the two measurements is within the acceptable tolerance range.
Step 6: Document and Analyze Results
Record all measurements and compare them to the specifications outlined in the engineering drawings or product documentation.
Analyze the results to determine if the forged cylinder meets the required dimensional tolerances and quality standards. If necessary, adjust the forging process or implement corrective actions to ensure that future forged cylinders meet the specified requirements.
Step 7: Implement a Quality Control System
Establish a systematic quality control process to inspect and measure forged cylinders throughout manufacturing regularly.
Train personnel on proper measuring techniques and tools to ensure consistent and accurate measurements.
Implement a system for tracking and documenting measurements to facilitate ongoing improvement and maintain high quality in your forged cylinders.
Dimensional Tolerance and Geometric Accuracy
Importance of tolerances
Dimensional tolerances specify the allowable variations in the dimensions of a forged cylinder. Meeting these tolerances ensures proper fit and function in the intended application.
Checking geometric accuracy
Geometric accuracy refers to the shape and form of a forged cylinder. This can be assessed using tools such as optical comparators or coordinate measuring machines (CMMs) to measure the cylinder’s features and compare them to the required specifications.
Analysis and Prevention of Forging Defects in Large Cylinders
The main research object is the forging process of large cylinders. The causes of end face defects, inner surface defects, outer surface defects, and shape defects generated during the forging process of large cylinders are analyzed. Combining production practice, forging process theory, and finite element numerical simulation technology, propose reasonable preventive measures and solutions that positively optimize the process and improve the quality of cylinder forgings.
Large cylinders are the main components of major technical equipment such as high-pressure vessels for nuclear power, generator protection rings in the power industry, and hydrogenation reactors in the petrochemical industry. The working environment of the cylinder is harsh, and its quality directly affects the reliability and safety of the equipment. Therefore, it is not only required to have good metallurgical quality but also high strength, toughness, good heat fatigue resistance, small grains, and uniform organization. Currently, the main forging process for large cylinder bodies is the core shaft expanding forging method, which follows the process flow: elongating and cutting the water riser – upsetting and punching – core shaft elongating – core shaft expanding. Some manufacturers adopt the advanced hollow steel ingot core shaft elongation core shaft expanding process, which greatly improves the production efficiency of cylindrical forgings by eliminating the two processes of upsetting and punching. However, this technology has yet to mature fully and cannot be widely applied.
The purpose of quality control during the barrel forging process is to ensure that the barrel quality meets the technical standards of the forging to meet the product’s design and usage requirements. The quality of the cylinder includes several aspects, such as the size, shape, surface quality, and internal quality of the forging. The main research object of this article is the appearance of defects that do not meet the technical standards of forgings during the forging process, such as the size, shape, and surface quality of forgings. As the generation and development of defects can be directly observed, timely detection and resolution of problems have an important impact on product quality, production cycle, etc. Based on clarifying the causes of forging defects, a combination of production practice, forging process theory, and finite element numerical simulation technology is proposed to propose preventive measures and solutions and verified through production practice. Continuously improving the awareness of defects among on-site operators, process personnel, and designers, implementing quality awareness throughout the entire product cycle, ultimately preventing defects in forgings and improving the quality of forgings.
The defects on the end face of the cylinder are mainly manifested as end face cracking and irregular edges (horseshoes). Suppose the crack on the end face of the cylinder needs to be removed promptly. In that case, it is likely to extend towards the interior of the substrate, resulting in a decrease in the usable length of the forging or even scrapping. The uneven end face results in a large amount of material being cut off at the forming rear end, decreasing material utilization and extending processing and production time. The main reasons for producing end face cracks are:
1) During the punching process of the forging, the metal finally tears from the forging, forming a tearing band on the lower end face, resulting in poor surface quality. If not treated, cracks will form during the elongation and expansion process of the mandrel;
2) During the upsetting and punching process, the billet’s lower end always comes into contact with the platform, resulting in a lower temperature. Under the tensile stress of punching, small cracks will appear on the lower end face of the billet, and if not treated promptly, large cracks will occur in the subsequent forging process;
3) During mandrel elongation and hole expansion, the temperature of the cylinder end face is the lowest. If the forming time is too long or the final forging temperature is too low, cracks will appear on the end face under large deformation conditions;
4) When the V-shaped anvil core shaft is elongated, the stress state is poor, and the circular billet shows elliptical deformation, causing additional stress. When rotating forging, the billet is subjected to alternating stress, resulting in end face cracking; 5) After the core shaft is elongated, there are many end face defects. Without processing the end face, the core shaft is directly expanded, resulting in more cracks during the core shaft expansion process.
The main reason for the irregular edge of the end face is the uneven heating of the forging before the core shaft is elongated. This results in large deformation in areas with high temperatures and small deformation in areas with low temperatures. Ultimately, the uneven wall thickness of the forging and irregular cylinder edge is formed. A horseshoe is formed if the end face is not treated and the core shaft is expanded directly.
Measures to reduce and prevent end-face defects include:
1) Carefully carry out oxygen blowing and cleaning work after each fire, paying special attention to the end face cracking and metal tearing after punching;
2) Before upsetting and punching, pay attention to the preheating of the platform and mold. After upsetting and punching, flatten the end face of the forging to reduce the occurrence of small cracks;
3) During the elongation process of the core shaft, first pull out both ends and then the middle to avoid the end face forming below the forging temperature;
4) By using the upper and lower V-shaped anvils for mandrel elongation, the deformation and stress state are improved, and the additional stress is reduced, which can greatly reduce the tendency to crack and increase productivity;
5) After the core shaft is elongated, gas cutting aligns the end face before proceeding with the core shaft expansion process.
6) Strictly control the heating temperature and uniformity of the core shaft during and before elongation to avoid the generation of negative and positive surfaces;
7) During stretching and expanding the core shaft, choose a reasonable reduction amount and turning angle based on specific conditions such as material and temperature.
External surface defects
The surface defects on the outer surface of the cylinder mainly include external surface creases, cracks, pits, black skin, and poor surface quality. The main reason for the external surface damage is the narrow cross-section of the anvil and excessive pressing. Pits may be formed due to the contact area between the clamp and the cylinder during transportation, traces left by oxygen blowing and cleaning, or the cylinder falling off the clamp and colliding with other workpieces during transportation when the forging is heated at a high temperature for a long time or repeatedly, copper precipitates on the surface of the oxidized decarburized steel. The surface grains are coarse, resulting in shallow turtle-shaped cracks on the surface of the forging. The above problems lead to poor surface quality and low molding of forgings, which are prone to cracking.
Measures to reduce and prevent end-face defects include:
1) Choose a reasonable forging reduction and rotation angle;
2) Try to shorten the forming time of forgings and reduce the number of fires;
3) Using upper and lower arc anvils to elongate the core shaft of a long cylinder can overcome the phenomenon of external surface cracks and folding defects caused by large reduction.
Internal surface defects
The surface defects inside the cylinder mainly manifest as internal surface folds, cracks, and pits. The possible reasons for this may be:
1) After punching the forging, if the bottom connecting skin is not completely removed, the core shaft is expanded, and the connecting skin folds into the inner surface to form a pinch;
2) During punching, there are burrs and micro cracks on the inner wall of the cylinder. If the hole is directly elongated and expanded without treatment, cracks will form on the inner wall;
3) Excessive compression can easily cause cracks in the inner hole when the core shaft is elongated.
Terms of settlement:
1) Suggest returning the billet to the furnace for heating before punching after upsetting;
2) Timely clean up the oxidized slag in the inner hole;
3) Select appropriate compression during mandrel elongation and hole expansion.
Appearance defects of the cylinder
The appearance defects of the cylinder mainly include a bell mouth, insufficient roundness of the forging section, and oversized inner and outer diameters. The diameter of the bell mouth is inconsistent at both ends of the forged cylinder.
(1) Trumpet mouth
Possible causes of formation are:
1) Due to the core shaft not being placed horizontally, the upper anvil undergoes more pressure at the higher end of the core shaft during the pressing process. In comparison, the lower end of the core shaft undergoes less pressure, ultimately forming a conical cross-section. This result also leads to inconsistent wall thickness on both sides of the cylinder, with a smaller diameter and a larger wall thickness on the other end;
2) After upsetting and punching the forging, the core shaft is directly expanded, causing the diameter of the lower end of the forging to be greater than that of the upper end, resulting in the formation of a bell mouth during the core shaft expansion process.
The specific solution is:
1) After upsetting and punching the forging, the diameter of both ends of the forging is adjusted by using a mandrel to expand the hole;
2) Before forming, carefully check the placement of the spindle support and clean the workbench promptly;
3) Avoiding situations where the core shaft support is not level is difficult. Detailed records of the equipment situation should be made, and the method of turning and forming during the hole expansion process should be used to reduce the bell mouth.
4) During the forming process, observe the changes in the diameters of both ends promptly, and repair the bell mouth promptly when it is not severe.
(2) Insufficient roundness of the forging section
The specific manifestation is that the cross-section of the forging is elliptical or irregularly shaped, which may be caused by:
1) Eccentric punching of forgings leads to the uneven wall thickness of forgings;
2) During the forging mandrel’s elongation process, the forging’s uneven wall thickness is caused by uneven temperature or improper operation. During the process of expanding the hole, due to the fixed amount of pressing on the upper anvil each time, there is a significant deformation in areas with larger wall thickness and a greater radial flow of metal;
3) During the process of expanding the core shaft, there is a significant change in the amount of pressure, resulting in uneven deformation.
Terms of settlement:
1) Using specific measuring tools to determine the punching center and reduce the impact of punching eccentricity on the core shaft expansion;
2) Strictly control the heating process before stretching the core shaft to avoid uneven heating and the generation of negative and positive surfaces;
3) For forgings that have already shown insufficient roundness, place the forgings on a workbench, press the highest point of the forging with an anvil, and gradually round the forgings.
(3) Inner and outer diameters out of tolerance
Specifically, due to the presence of internal and external surface defects (pits, black skin, etc., after crack repair), the actual machining size of the forging is smaller than the required size, including two situations: when the inner diameter of the forging meets the standard, the outer diameter is smaller than the required size, and when the outer diameter of the forging meets the standard, the inner diameter is larger than the required size. When not handled properly, the various defects analyzed in this article can lead to the deviation of the inner and outer diameters of the forging, ultimately resulting in the forging failing to meet the processing requirements and being scrapped.
Terms of settlement:
1) For forgings with an inner diameter smaller than the required size, if the length of the forging is short and the wall thickness is thick, upsetting can be used to increase the wall thickness by reducing the height of the forging, and then the required size can be achieved through the elongation process. It is worth noting that during the upsetting process, there is a tendency for internal concavity to occur.
2) For forgings with an inner diameter greater than the required size when the outer diameter meets the standard, V-anvil shrinkage can be used to reduce the inner and outer diameter of the forging. However, there needs to be more research in this area, and only empirical operations can be relied on.
The quality of cylinder forgings depends on the entire forging process, and negligence or improper process in a certain production process may lead to a decrease in forging quality and an extension of the production cycle. Regarding the defect analysis of the forging process of the cylinder forging mentioned above, the following points should be noted for the entire forging process of the cylinder:
(1) Pay attention to the quality of forgings after upsetting and punching, and eliminate cracks and other defects at the source;
(2) Supervise the entire process of the cylinder forming and promptly handle any defects found;
(3) Strictly control the heating temperature of forgings to ensure the uniformity of cylinder temperature;
(4) After the core shaft is elongated, gas cutting is used to align the end face;
(5) Use numerical simulation and other methods to design reasonable process parameters such as reduction and rotation angle.
How to purchase the correct forged cylinders?
To purchase the correct forged cylinders, there are several factors to take into account:
Material of Forged Cylinders
Selecting the right material is crucial for your project. Common materials for forged cylinders include carbon steel, stainless steel, alloy steel, aluminum, copper, and titanium. Each material has its advantages and disadvantages, so choosing the one that best suits your application is essential.
Size and Shape of Forged Cylinders
The size and shape of the forged cylinder should match the requirements of your project. Consider the dimensions, such as length, diameter, or thickness, and the overall shape (round or flat). Custom sizes and shapes can also be requested from the supplier.
Tolerance and Straightness of Forged Cylinders
Tolerance refers to the allowable variation in dimensions, while straightness is the degree to which the cylinder is free of bends or twists. Higher tolerance and straightness standards ensure better quality and performance of the forged cylinders. Make sure to specify your desired tolerance and straightness requirements when purchasing.
Surface Finish of Forged Cylinders
The surface finish of a forged cylinder can affect its performance, corrosion resistance, and appearance. Common surface finishes include hot-rolled, cold-drawn, turned, and polished. The choice of surface finish depends on your application and aesthetic preferences.
Heat Treatment of Forged Cylinders
Heat treatment can significantly alter the mechanical properties of the forged cylinders, such as hardness, strength, and ductility. Depending on your application, you may require specific heat treatment processes like annealing, normalizing, quenching, or tempering. Ensure your supplier can provide your forged cylinders with the necessary heat treatment services.
Quality Certifications of Forged Cylinders
Quality certifications, such as ISO, ASTM, or ASME, ensure that the forged cylinders meet specific industry standards and requirements. Look for suppliers with these certifications to guarantee you’re purchasing high-quality products.
Budget and Pricing of Forged Cylinders
The cost of forged cylinders can vary depending on the material, size, and additional processing. Compare prices from different suppliers and consider your budget while making your decision. Keep in mind that quality should not be compromised for the sake of lower prices.
Purchasing the correct forged cylinders is crucial for the success of your project. By understanding the forging process, considering factors like material, size, shape, and quality certifications, and choosing the right supplier, you can ensure that you’re investing in high-quality products that meet your needs. With the right forged cylinders, you can enhance the performance, durability, and longevity of your applications, contributing to the overall success of your project.
How to select forged cylinders manufacturer?
Selecting the manufacturer of the right forged cylinder requires careful consideration of various factors, including quality, experience, capacity, customization, certification, pricing, location, reputation, and additional services offered. By considering all these aspects, you can make an informed decision and choose a reliable and experienced manufacturer that will deliver high-quality forged cylinders for your project.
Factors to Consider when Selecting a Forged Cylinders Manufacturer
The quality of the forged cylinders is of paramount importance. Always choose a manufacturer that adheres to strict quality control standards and utilizes advanced technology to produce high-quality forged cylinders.
The manufacturer’s experience in the industry is an essential factor to consider. An experienced manufacturer will have the knowledge and expertise to produce high-quality forged cylinders and meet your requirements.
The production capacity of the manufacturer should be taken into account. Ensure the manufacturer can handle your order volume, whether a small or large-scale project.
Your project may require customized forged cylinders with unique specifications. Choose a manufacturer offering customization options, ensuring they meet your specific needs.
Check if the manufacturer holds relevant certifications, such as ISO or AS9100. These certifications are an indication of their commitment to quality and industry standards.
While pricing should not be the sole determining factor, it is essential to consider the cost of the forged cylinders. Select a manufacturer that offers competitive pricing without compromising quality.
The location of the manufacturer can affect shipping times and logistics costs. Opt for a conveniently located manufacturer that can deliver the forged cylinders within your desired timeframe.
Evaluating a Manufacturer’s Reputation
A. Customer Reviews
Read through customer reviews and testimonials to understand the manufacturer’s reputation. Positive feedback from satisfied customers is a good indication of the manufacturer’s reliability and commitment to quality.
B. Industry Recognition
Look for manufacturers that have received industry awards or recognition, which indicates their dedication to excellence and innovation in forged cylinders manufacturing.
Additional Services Offered
A. In-House Testing
Choose a manufacturer that offers in-house testing and inspection services. This ensures that the forged cylinders meet your specifications and quality requirements before shipping them.
B. On-Time Delivery
On-time delivery is crucial for any project. Select a manufacturer with a track record of delivering orders on time to avoid potential delays or disruptions to your project schedule.
C. After-Sales Support
After-sales support is an essential aspect of any business relationship. Choose a manufacturer that offers excellent customer service and support, including addressing any concerns or issues you may have with the forged cylinders after delivery.
Why Choose Guanxin to Be Your forged cylinder Supplier?
At Guanxin, we pride ourselves on providing top-notch forged cylinders that meet industry standards. Our state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities and experienced team of engineers ensure that every forged cylinder we produce is exceptional, with precise dimensions and impeccable surface finish. By choosing Guanxin as your forged cylinder supplier, you can be confident that you are receiving products that will exceed your expectations and stand the test of time.
Wide Range of Materials and Sizes
Our extensive selection of materials and sizes sets us apart from other forged cylinder suppliers. We offer a diverse range of metals, including stainless steel, alloy steel, carbon steel, and superalloys, to meet the unique requirements of various industries. Our forged cylinders are available in various diameters and lengths, ensuring we can fulfill any order, no matter how specialized or demanding.
Tailored Solutions for Your Specific Needs
At Guanxin, we understand that each customer has unique requirements and challenges. That’s why we offer customized solutions tailored to your specific needs. Our skilled engineers will work closely with you to develop and produce forged cylinders that meet your specifications. Whether you require a particular material, size, or surface finish, we have the expertise and resources to deliver the perfect solution for your project.
Competitive Pricing and Exceptional Value
We know that cost is crucial when selecting a forged cylinder supplier. At Guanxin, we are committed to providing our customers with competitive pricing without compromising quality. Our streamlined manufacturing processes and extensive industry experience allow us to offer exceptional value, ensuring that you receive the best possible product at a fair price.
Fast Lead Times and Reliable Delivery
In today’s fast-paced business world, time is of the essence. We understand the importance of delivering your forged cylinders promptly and reliably. Our efficient production processes and well-established logistics network ensure that your order will be completed and delivered on time every time. By choosing Guanxin as your forged cylinder supplier, you can rest assured that your project will stay on track and schedule.
Unparalleled Customer Support
Customer satisfaction is at the core of our business. Our dedicated customer support team is always available to answer any questions or address any concerns. From the moment you place your order to the final delivery of your forged cylinders, we will be with you every step to ensure a seamless and hassle-free experience.
Environmentally Conscious Manufacturing
At Guanxin, we recognize the importance of protecting the environment and are committed to sustainable manufacturing practices. Our eco-friendly production processes and adherence to strict environmental regulations ensure that our forged cylinders are produced with minimal environmental impact. By choosing Guanxin as your forged cylinder supplier, you can be confident that you are partnering with a company that values and prioritizes environmental responsibility.
Global Presence and Reputation
As a leading global forged cylinder supplier, Guanxin has established a strong presence and reputation in the international market. Our extensive network of satisfied customers and partners is a testament to our commitment to quality, innovation, and customer service. By partnering with Guanxin, you can be assured that you are working with a company with the expertise and resources to support your business globally.
State-of-the-Art Research and Development
Innovation is at the heart of our success at Guanxin. Our research and development team is constantly exploring new materials, technologies, and manufacturing techniques to improve the performance and durability of our forged cylinders. By staying at the forefront of industry advancements, we can offer our customers cutting-edge products that set the standard for quality and performance. When you choose Guanxin as your forged cylinder supplier, you can be sure that you are receiving products incorporating the latest industry innovations.
Strict Quality Control and Assurance
To guarantee the highest quality forged cylinders, we have implemented a rigorous quality control and assurance system at every stage of the production process. From selecting raw materials to the final inspection and testing finished products, our experienced quality control team ensures that every forged cylinder meets our strict quality standards. By maintaining our unwavering commitment to quality, we can provide our customers with forged cylinders they can trust to perform reliably in even the most demanding applications.
Certifications and Compliance
As a leading forged cylinder supplier, Guanxin is fully committed to complying with all applicable industry standards and regulations. We hold various certifications, including ISO, demonstrating our dedication to maintaining the highest levels of quality and safety in our products and processes. By choosing Guanxin as your forged cylinder supplier, you can be certain that you are partnering with a company that values compliance and adheres to the strictest industry standards.
Long-Term Partnerships and Collaboration
At Guanxin, we believe in building long-lasting relationships with our customers and partners. By fostering a collaborative environment and maintaining open lines of communication, we can better understand your needs and work together to achieve your goals. Our commitment to long-term partnerships ensures we can provide ongoing support and resources to help your business grow and succeed.
Experience and Expertise
With years of experience in the forged cylinder industry, our team of skilled professionals has the knowledge and expertise to provide you with the best possible solutions for your projects. Our in-depth understanding of various industries unique requirements and challenges enables us to offer expert guidance and advice to help you make the best decisions for your business.
Guanxin is the ideal choice for your forged cylinder supplier due to our commitment to quality, innovation, customer satisfaction, and environmental responsibility. Our extensive range of products, tailored solutions, competitive pricing, fast lead times, and exceptional customer support make us the preferred partner for businesses worldwide. By choosing Guanxin as your forged cylinder supplier, you can be confident that you are working with a company dedicated to your success.
Our forging product types
|Item||Type||Section size/mm||Length/Height mm||Weight/ton|
|1||Circle/step axis class||Ø100-Ø1500||≤15000||≤15|
|4||Pie type class||Ø200-Ø2400||≤700||≤12|
|5||Valve box/valve body type||Ø250-1200||≤2000||≤12|
|Shaft flange type|
|7||Cross axis class||≤Ø2000||≤500||≤10|
Export Country For Forged Cylinders
|MIDDLE EAST||AFRICA||NORTH AMERICA||EUROPE||ASIA||SOUTH AMERICA|
|Oman||Sudan||Trinidad And Tobago||Spain||South Korea||Ecuador|
|Turkey||The Republic Of Congo||Bahamas||Netherland||Sri Lanka||Paraguay|